Diabetes mellitus is a rather serious disease, to which, according to statistics, almost every fourth person is susceptible. Since today the number of patients exceeds the mark of 350 million people, the diet for diabetes mellitus is being carefully studied, which, according to experts, should be followed not only by patients, but also by people predisposed to the development of the disease.
Excessive weight, genetic predisposition or stomach diseases can lead to a sharp cessation of insulin production and other unpleasant manifestations, and adherence to a diet will become a necessary measure to maintain a normal state.
Features of nutrition in diabetes mellitus
The diet for diabetes can differ significantly depending on the type of disease. As a rule, there are 2 main types of diabetes mellitus, where there are several forms and rules of nutrition, which is due to the causes of metabolic disorders and the conversion of sugar into glucose.
But each type of disease requires compliance with general dietary habits.
Basic nutritional guidelines for diabetes
Nutrition for diabetes should be carried out in accordance with strict adherence to the basic rules. So, for both types of the disease, there are the following aspects in the diet:
- The diet should contain proteins, fats and carbohydrates in a balanced ratio in relation to the presence of the disease.
- The number of meals should be increased slightly. So, you should eat every 3-4 hours in small portions, dishes for diabetics should be low in calories.
- The calorie content of foods and dishes should be carefully and carefully calculated - it should not exceed the daily energy consumption. Otherwise, the likelihood of weight gain increases, which in diabetes is fraught with complications.
- Almost any diet for patients with the presented disease pursues the foundations of a correct and balanced diet. You should include in the diet vegetables and fruits, carbohydrates and proteins, do not neglect fats and amino acids.
It should be noted that each patient should consult with their healthcare professional on nutritional basics for their specific case. It is not recommended to follow a specific diet, even if it is intended for people with diabetes, without consulting a doctor.
The attending physician must calculate the calorie content for the patient, as well as make certain changes in accordance with the individual characteristics of the organism.
Type 1 diabetes and diet
As strange as it may sound, the type 1 diabetes diet is based on the correct administration of insulin, so here you should take into account the use of foods that significantly increase blood sugar.
It turns out that for such patients, nutrition does not require any restrictions, it is only necessary to carry out correct accounting and timely administration of insulin into the blood. The following principles and rules for administering insulin are present here:
- Foods that do not contain a lot of carbohydrates in their composition should not be taken into account. For example, meat and fish, eggs and cheese, cottage cheese and butter can be consumed in reasonable quantities, but their consumption must not be reduced or eliminated.
- Only carbohydrate-containing products can be counted - these are flour and confectionery products, as well as plant products and liquid dairy products.
Insulin should be administered according to the amount of food consumed. You should also adjust yourself in time to the consumption of food. Here you need to use the following principles and rules for administering insulin:
- if treatment occurs with short-acting insulin, then its introduction occurs 20 minutes before meals;
- if treatment occurs with insulin of medium duration of action, then its introduction occurs 40 minutes before a meal;
- when using the combined type of insulin, it is administered according to the scheme 20 minutes before breakfast, every 3 hours during the day and half an hour before a full dinner.
The insulin dose should be calculated according to the amount of food consumed. The calculation is carried out by calculating bread units (XE).
The unit is a 25 g piece of bread (10-12 g carbohydrates), which increases a person's blood sugar by 1. 8 mmol / L.
The attending physician can tell you exactly about the calculations. Also, for an accurate calculation of the dose of insulin, you should study the table, which shows the indicators of the carbohydrate content in each product.
Type 2 diabetes and diet
The type 2 diabetes diet is significantly different from the type 1 diet. Here, one should take into account not only the products allowed for consumption, but also carefully monitor the calorie content of the daily diet. So, here are the following indicators:
- normal daily calorie content should be in the range of 1600-2500 kcal, depending on the patient's weight and energy consumption;
- in the presence of excess weight, the calorie content necessarily decreases to 1300-1500 kcal;
- if there is a lot of excess weight, the attending physician can reduce the calorie content to 1000 kcal per day;
- there are times when excessive weight significantly exceeds the norm and the daily calorie content is reduced to 600-900 kcal.
The calorie content of food should be calculated by the attending physician, since not only the indicators of a person's weight are taken into account, but also the presence of such diseases as cardiac arrhythmia, severe chronic diseases, gout, mental disorders.
The diet for type 2 diabetics is as follows:
- Carbohydrates of the total daily diet should not exceed 55%. Preference should be given to those products that are saturated with vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. For example, wholemeal breads, whole grains, legumes, and vegetables. As for sugar-containing products, they are completely abandoned. Instead of sugar, xylitol or sorbitol is allowed to be consumed at the rate of 0. 5 g per 1 kg of the patient's weight, divided at the same time into 2-3 doses.
- Proteins for a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus are allowed according to the physiological norm of a healthy person - 90 g per day. Preference should be given to lean meat in the form of poultry, lean fish and cottage cheese. The daily intake of proteins in the diet is 15-20%.
- 30% of the daily ration contains fats, which come to the body to a greater extent from vegetable oils.
- They consume salt and fatty foods in limited quantities.
Experts advise to take seriously the diet of patients with diabetes. It is better to make a menu for every day, for 2-3 days or even a whole week.
It will not be superfluous to present it to the attending physician, who will be able to make adjustments according to the patient's state of health.
Features of a low-carb diet for type 2 diabetes
As a rule, the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, which requires immediate elimination so that a person can tolerate the disease more easily and do not expose the body to sharp and significant "jumps" in blood sugar levels.
Thus, many experts suggest a low-carb diet for type 2 diabetes. What is it?
Scientists have suggested that it is quite difficult for sick people to adhere to proper nutrition and basic principles immediately after diagnosing their disease.
In addition, the main task here is to lose excess weight, therefore, the patient needs to reduce calorie intake, which is not always possible.
So, a person begins to suffer from sharp drops in blood sugar levels, which follows in connection with constant hunger. This, according to scientists, can be easily avoided by eating more protein.
Protein foods are great for weight loss. In addition, in diabetes mellitus, protein foods are the safest. This diet is more reminiscent of everyone's familiar "Kremlin".
But such a diet should be resorted to only with the permission of the attending physician, since the intake of protein in the body in large quantities can be dangerous to health and provoke an exacerbation of chronic diseases.
If the presented diet is followed, it is recommended to take special vitamins for diabetics, which will be prescribed by the attending physician.
Principles and basics of the "Table number 9" diet
Most specialists support not only proper nutrition, but also the use of special medical diets.
So, especially for patients with the presented disease, a diet was developed, called "Table No. 9", which corresponds to the approved list of all medical nutritional foundations.
She points out exactly how to eat with diabetes mellitus correctly, lists the permitted and prohibited foods.
The presented menu is also subdivided into two categories, which correspond to the 1st and 2nd types of the disease. But there are general principles that need to be learned and followed in order to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Principles of the "Table number 9" diet
The presented diet contains basic principles that should be taken into account without question. These include the following aspects:
- Meals can be taken up to 6 times a day. The main feature is that you need to eat every 3 hours in small portions.
- The menu for diabetics is compiled without the inclusion of fried, spicy, fatty foods.
- You can only eat boiled, stewed and baked dishes.
- Sweets for diabetics should be replaced with natural products or with the addition of a sweetener.
"Table No. 9" contains a complete list of foods that are allowed for consumption, rich in vitamins and other useful microelements. You should pay attention to fruits with a high content of ascorbic acid, which are allowed to be consumed in small quantities during the day.
What can you eat with diabetes
The presented diet fully indicates to patients what can be eaten with diabetes mellitus of any type. These foods are recommended to be included in the diet to maintain sugar levels and prevent complications. Permitted products include:
- all flour products made from whole grains and wholemeal flour;
- sausages with a low content of fat and fatty inclusions;
- all types of fish related to low-fat varieties;
- all types of lean meats;
- greens and green vegetables;
- fruits with a low sugar content;
- oatmeal, buckwheat and millet are allowed from cereals;
- any low-fat dairy products;
- tea, freshly squeezed juices from permitted fruits and vegetables, herbal teas are allowed from drinks.
Allowed foods are consumed according to the above rules and characteristics, depending on the type of disease.
What not to eat with diabetes
In the diet "Table number 9" there is a list of foods that are prohibited, they must be consumed with utmost vigilance and accuracy. The list of prohibited products includes:
- all types of sweets, including sweets with a high sugar content (type of jam);
- fatty poultry meat;
- salinity in the form of salted fish, salted canned food and other pickles;
- fatty and drinkable fermented milk products, for example, baked milk, cream and yoghurts;
- you can not eat strong meat broths;
- pasta, rice and semolina are prohibited - they increase sugar levels;
- hot spices, seasonings, snacks;
- sweet fruits;
- production juices from packages - they have a high sugar content;
- any alcoholic drinks.
The type of disease in this case does not in any way affect the possibility of consuming prohibited foods. According to experts, even patients with type 1 diabetes should stick to a diet so as not to aggravate the situation.
Controversial fruits and vegetables for diabetes
There are several controversial issues in the diet of diabetics. Saying that natural products are allowed, including spices, the doctors themselves begin to restrict patients in their use. What is the reason for this?
Controversial fruits in diabetes
The article has repeatedly mentioned that in the presence of the presented disease, unsweetened fruits are allowed for consumption. They contain little sugar, and therefore, it will not harm the patient in any way.
However, what fruits can be eaten with diabetes mellitus, even patients with long experience do not know exactly. There is no need to talk about the ban on the use of grapes, but there are several controversial fruits, including:
- Persimmon. Is it possible to eat persimmon with diabetes mellitus, if its taste vaguely resembles sweet. It is this fact that confuses most patients.
As it turns out, in fact, this fruit contains many vitamins, amino acids, trace elements and sucrose. This fact allows even sick people to use persimmon, since it has a beneficial effect on the body. But this fruit also has a high glycemic index - 70%.
It turns out that you can eat persimmon, but only in limited quantities - 70 g of the fruit is 1 XE. Persimmons for type 2 diabetes mellitus are also allowed for consumption, but in limited quantities - no more than 1 fruit per day.
- Mandarins. Citrus fruits are allowed for diabetics, but in moderation. But is it possible to eat tangerines with diabetes mellitus is a moot point.
The fact is that tangerines contain a large amount of carbohydrates, which leads to a sharp increase in blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, experts advise against eating tangerines, even in moderation.
- Watermelon and melon. By the end of summer, melons ripen, which encourages patients to eat watermelon and melon.
These berries have a high glycemic index - 75% and 65%, respectively. This leads to a sharp release of sugar into the patient's blood, which provokes malaise and leads to fainting.
These products for diabetics are banned or require the use of bread units. Each patient should consult with the attending physician, who can calculate the permitted dosage of fruit for consumption.
Controversial vegetables and roots in diabetes mellitus
The use of vegetables in diabetes mellitus is also subject to controversy.
Many patients do not even realize that vegetables and root crops such as potatoes, carrots, beets and tomatoes are under the strictest prohibition.
The listed vegetables contain a large amount of glucose, starch and sugar, which is unacceptable for consumption by patients with diabetes mellitus.
The following products are also subject to consideration:
- Jerusalem artichoke for diabetesRecommended for use by many experts. It contains many amino acids, trace elements and inulin, which is at least 80%. This enzyme is a polysaccharide made up of multiple chains of fructose. It turns out that this root vegetable should not be consumed in unlimited quantities, but it must be included in the diet for diabetes mellitus, since its benefit lies in the prevention of the occurrence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Pumpkin is a useful vegetable for diabetics. It contains a large amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, which has a positive effect on weight control and maintenance, and also contributes to weight loss. As a result, it turns out that pumpkin in type 2 diabetes mellitus should be eaten without fail, you just need to carefully monitor the amount of product in a serving, because there is also a high sugar content here.
- Sauerkraut with diabetes also gives rise to a lot of controversy, because, as already mentioned above, salting for patients is prohibited. However, this type of salting is allowed for consumption by patients with type 2 diabetes. Cabbage and pickle improve metabolism, resulting in gradual weight loss. Also, there are useful qualities for the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, you can use sauerkraut, but only in small quantities.
Considering recipes for diabetics, you can reveal a lot of interesting things in the use of products, including vegetables and fruits.
Here, you should carefully consider the required amount of products for cooking. If necessary, you should calculate the amount of food you are allowed to consume.
Healthy foods for diabetes
For diabetics, some natural products act only as a beneficial effect on the functioning of the whole body. So, for example, you cannot completely exclude the consumption of glucose. It is the foundation of most of the processes in the human body, which acts as an integral part.
Based on the necessity and benefits of using natural products for diabetes mellitus, scientists give their list, which lists all the properties that should be followed when choosing and at the time of drawing up a diet.
Most patients refuse to consume honey. It seems to them that it contains a lot of sugar and glucose. As it turns out, this natural product is only 40% sucrose. But it contains the same amount of glucose, which can leave the use of honey banned for diabetes.
Nevertheless, experts say that honey is simply irreplaceable for diabetes. They can replace regular and usual sugar.
A portion of honey for type 2 diabetes should not exceed 1-2 tablespoons. Divide it into several steps: add to baked goods or tea.
Cinnamon is mandatory for patients with type 2 diabetes. Due to the composition of the spice in the body, the sensitivity of cells to the produced insulin increases, which helps to normalize and reduce blood sugar levels.
In addition, cinnamon in diabetes helps to cleanse blood vessels and internal organs from toxins and toxins, which has a positive effect on the prevention of thrombophlebitis and other serious diseases.
For a pleasant cinnamon application, add half a teaspoon to your tea or coffee. You can also sprinkle all dishes with spice a little, in accordance with your taste and preferences.
Bay leaf in diabetes mellitus is necessary for use, but is contraindicated in the presence of serious diseases. So, this natural product must be used to strengthen immunity, accelerate metabolism, cleanse the body of toxins and toxins.
On the other hand, bay leaves should not be consumed by people with late stage diabetes, kidney disease, or stomach ulcers.
Bay leaf is mandatory for type 2 diabetes, where the patient is overweight and has high cholesterol.
The use of bay leaves is allowed in the form of a dressing for dishes, but it is still more useful to use an infusion. To prepare it, take 10 sheets of laurel and pour three glasses of boiling water.
Leave the infusion for infusion for 3-4 hours. Take the composition of 100 g up to three times a day and half an hour before meals. This will help keep your glucose levels at the correct level.
Almost no one knows about the benefits of stevia in diabetes mellitus, but regular use of the infusion helps to maintain glucose at the required level, strengthens blood vessels, lowers cholesterol and blood pressure, and significantly improves blood microcirculation.
The collection is easy to purchase at the pharmacy. It should be brewed according to the instructions presented, and the herbal tea should be drunk hot and in small sips.
Eat with diabetes mellitus correctly, in accordance with the basic recommendations of specialists. This way you can keep your blood sugar level at a healthy level and feel great in any emergency.